Assessment of the contribution of mobile de Camilla de Madeira a de Madeira to climate change/assessment products (HWPs)
In recent years, attention has been paid to climate change mitigation, especially in the context of the agreement reached by the international community at the Durban climate conference in 2011, the second commitment period (2013-2020)
Kyoto Protocol (KP)
Mitigation of forest protection programmes from domestic forests should be considered.
When the Paris Agreement was adopted by 195 parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, it again resonated (UNFCCC)
In 2015, the key role of forests and their harvested wood products in climate change mitigation was recognized (FAO 2016).
Evidence of countless lives
Cycle Assessment (LCAs)(
2000 of Borjesson and Gustavsson, Bowen 2004, Buchanana and Levineb 1999, Fruhwald, etc.
2003, Petersen and Solberg 2002)of wood-
Based on the product, wood materials have small greenhouse gases (GHG)
Throughout the life cycle of the product, the emissions exceed the competitive material and the production phase of the wood
Material-based greenhouse gas emissions are below functional comparable non-production stagesWood material (FAO 2016).
When the impact of climate change becomes a key criterion for the manufacture and use of products, recording the advantages of wood as a raw material is essential to ensure the future of the wood products industry (Bergman et al. 2014).
During harvest, carbon is either removed from the forest as HWPs or retained as logging residue (
Kloehn and Ciccarese 2005).
Wood products, improve the capacity of forest carbon sink, extend the time, carbon dioxideC[O. sub. 2])
Be excluded from the atmosphere while encouraging forest growth (CEI-Bois 2006).
HWPs is the \"carbon pool\" 13 where the carbon remains fixed until the product rot or Burns (UNFCCC 2003).
Therefore, HWPs can help store carbon in the short or long term (
Newspaper 2 months, 75 years of structural wood)
According to the product itself, the use and the method of disposal (
IPCC 2006 and CEI-Bois 2006).
In addition to storing carbon, wood can also replace other materials as input in the production process or as a final product.
In this case, material substitution involves Wood substitution as an alternative to production factors or products.
It can be used as a replacement for raw materials from energy sources
Intensive production department (
Such as steel and plastic)
Or can be used for energy production, not fossil fuels, but, in this case, its impact on the environment remains the subject of debate between scientists and climate negotiators (Bowyer et al.
2010, Gustavsson, etc.
2006, Kloehn and Ciccarese 2005 and Yadav et al. 2014).
Wood substitution can be further divided into fresh forest biomass and recycled wood and fiber.
In the first case, fresh forest biomass--
As a non-substitute
In the short and long term, it will have an environmental impact on the forest structure.
Although wood substitutes from recycled wood and fiber extend the service life of some of the biomass that has been taken out of the forest ---
Save it from the upcoming decay (
Et al of Gustavsson. 2006).
Since the beginning of 1990, the environmental advantages of HWPs have been the subject of research (Winjum et al. 1998).
However, there seems to be a lack of a comprehensive survey of the carbon storage and alternative potential of HWP.
One of the reasons is that it is difficult to track their environmental impact in the harvesting, manufacturing and supply chain of wood.
Inventory and possible reuse of wood products at different stages of their life cycle further complicate the assessment (Profft et al. 2009).
Therefore, a productby-
The product approach of HWP accounting is challenging.
Due to the lack of comprehensive and official data, the general potential of primary HWPs is being studied in most carbon storage studies (
Sawwood, pulp and wood-based panels).
These data are readily available from trade and production databases such as COMTRADE, FAOSTAT, Eurostat and the Atlas of Global Trade (GTA).
Alternative potential for terminals, on the other hand
The use of products in progress, primarily involving the construction sector, in which the life cycle of alternative materials and their carbon replacement factors are compared with wood (
2000 of Borjesson and Gustavsson, Bowen 2004, Buchanana and Levineb 1999, Fruhwald, etc.
2003, Petersen and Solberg 2002).
For furniture subsidiaries, there is still very little research in this areasector.
There are few LCA studies on wooden furniture. Murphy (2004)
16 LCA studies on temperate and tropical timber products were reviewed and only one was directly related to the furniture industry (
Taylor and Van rangenberg 2003).
In all studies, wood and wood products were found to have less impact on the environment than alternative materials, although other materials were used during the production of wood furniture (e. g.
Plastic, glue and metal)
Will greatly increase the impact on the environment.
The furniture industry is a large and highly differentiated sector in the manufacturing industry.
With the application of new technology and the creation of the latest design, it has developed and is still developing to meet the needs and preferences of consumers.
In this regard, although Wood has always been a tradition of furniture manufacturing (
Since the Bible and the artifacts of the Assyrian, Egyptian, Greek and Roman eras ---
Litchfield 1903 and young 2004)
A series of other raw materials have been used in the furniture industry (e. g.
Metal, plastic, glass, foam, leather, etc. )
A piece of furniture.
In the near future, furniture manufacturing may still use wood, but, as a more competitive alternative, it will continue to grow and continue, in the near future, wood may no longer be a major component of the industry.
This study aims to estimate the potential carbon reserves associated with the use of wood in kitchen furniture and to estimate the alternative efficiency of wood as an input into the manufacture of cabinet skeletons.
Discussion results to outline the impact on decision making
Manufacturers, producers and consumers.
In this study, wooden kitchen furniture in Western Europe was studied.
16 countries, accounting for about 70% of European timber consumption from 2010 to 2014 (UNECE 2016)
Was included in the study.
In this theoretical assessment, primary and secondary sources of qualitative and quantitative information were used to study the role of kitchen furniture in mitigating climate change.
In addition, the calculated carbon reserves and alternative efficiency estimates account for only the raw materials or parts of the processed materials used when making the kitchen cabinet skeleton.
Carbon inventory accounting for wood kitchen furniture production, export, import and consumption data for selected 16 countries in 2014 (2)(
2012 and 2013)(CSIL 2014a)
As the main reference data.
Since the data is not presented in volume or value--
But in the number of units--
Data was processed further.
In order to convert unit data to volume, the Industrial Research Center (CSIL)
The definition of a standard kitchen unit is the sum of at least six cabinets and is completed or completed (
That is, two or three units or less than one linear meter)
The number of kitchens produced is not considered (CSIL 2014a).
However, kitchen cabinets fall into unfinished form ---
No door and complete cabinet frame or case.
In order to calculate the equivalent volume of wood used in each kitchen unit, the volume of wood consumed in one kitchen unit must be calculated.
Conduct telephone and email interviews to verify the estimated wood consumption for a kitchen unit.
CSIL data on the number of kitchen equipment produced in Western Europe is converted into cubic meters ([m. sup. 3])
Based on measurements and wood volume estimates from a standard kitchen unit provided by industry respondents, as well as online kitchen brochures.
The wood volume estimate for the kitchen unit is based on the size of the IKEA3 cabinet and a rough estimate provided by the houden woodworking group (UK)
And PoggenPohl (
German branch of Nobia).
It is estimated that the assumption is used that each kitchen unit consists of 11 cabinets, using about 0 cabinets. 7 [m. sup. 3]of wood.
Then the volume of wood is converted into [Wood]m. sup. -3]
Default conversion factor using wood-
The Kyoto Protocol of the Inter-Governmental Special Committee on Climate Change (IPCC KP)
Supplement to HWP (see Table 2. 8. 1 in IPCC 2014).
Table 1 summarizes the assumptions used in calculating the wood volume and carbon content of kitchen furniture units.
According to the modified version of Formula 2, the approximate carbon stock in the wooden kitchen furniture pool of 2011, 2012 and 2013 was calculated according to the production method. 8. 5 (Equation 1)and 2. 8. 616 (Equation 2)
The same ipcc kp supplement.
Use the corrected equation 2. 8. 5 (Equation 1)
Using production data of 2012 and 2013, the approximate carbon reserves of Western European wooden kitchen furniture pools were calculated in 2011.
Because only the production value (
(Excluding import and export and consumption)
Use the improved equation 2, and then correct the results with the raw material score of the domestic harvest. 8. 1 (
The equation of FIRW)
KP supplement of 2013 gas Special Committee (page 2. 112).
Equation 1 C([t. sub. 0])= [[Production. sub. (average)]/k]x fIRW (i)
Equation 2 C(i + 1)= [e. sup. -k]x C(i)+ [(1--[e. sup. -k])/k]x Production(i)x Firw(i)
Location: Year I = C (i)
= 1. Carbon stock of wooden kitchen furniture at the beginning of tC [[t. sub. 2]. Sum up (
On the other hand, negative displacement indicates that more emissions will be generated when wood is used (
Sathre and O\'Connor 20 A).
In addition to replacing fossil fuels with wood, replacing energy
The total carbon impact of Wood-reinforced materials on this material is also very important.
Research shows that alternative building materials (
Such as concrete, bricks or bricks)
Wood in cubic meters can avoid an average of 0. 75 to 1 t C[O. sub. 2](Reid et al. 2004)or 0. 52 t C[O. sub. 2]
When replacing bricks with Wood (Santi et al. 2016).
Similarly, Yadav and others. (2014)
According to furniture research in India, it is concluded that the use of wood instead of cubic meters of metal or plastic will save 2 t C [O. sub. 2]emissions.
Figure 1 is the ratio of C [reduction]O. sub. 2]
Discharge when wood products are replaced
Wood products and fuel.
The alternative efficiency is from 0.
The ratio of ethanol to gasoline is as high as 4.
9 engineering Wood I-
The floor is replaced by a beam.
This complex relationship between product use and alternative materials creates a hierarchy of the best ways to reduce carbon, and opens up many opportunities for improving material use and substitution (CORRIM 2013).
Emission potential of Wood replaced by metals or other fossils
Use assumptions used by Yadav et al to determine fuel-intensive materials. (2014)
Based on Fruhwald, etc. (2003).
They assume that 1 m³ of the wood is used instead of a considerable number of fossils.
Fuel-intensive materials (e. g.
Metal and Plastic)
Can avoid emissions of about 1. 1 t C[O. sub. 2]
Except for a 0. 9 t C[O. sub. 2]
Stored in wood.
A total of 2 tons can be saved by 1 m³ of wood substitution. O. sub. 2]emissions.
The carbon replacement ratio assumed here is 2:1.
Other similar studies have also reflected this 2-1 carbon replacement ratio. CORRIM (2013)
The average replacement of meta wood products is 2. 1 kg C[O. sub. 2]
C [displacement per kilogram]O. sub. 2]
The wood used by satherey and O\'Connor (2010b)
The average displacement factor value 2 is also given. 1 (
This means an average of 2. 1 t C[O. sub. 2]
Alternative equivalent emission reduction for each tc in non-wood productswood products).
Therefore, in this study, it was assumed that 2 t C could be saved by using wood [O. sub. 2]
Wood used per cubic meter to replace more fossil fuels
Understanding and comparing the alternative potential of wood with other materials requires a cradle based on environmental impact --to-grave LCA (
ISO 2006a and ISO 2006b: 2).
This method requires a lot of data collection, a lot of assumptions (
For example, about the life and treatment of materials)
The Conduct of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI)
Use of different life cycle impact categories (Curran 2006).
Comprehensive life cycle evaluation of wood
Basic systems may be more complex than non-basic systems
Wood replacement (FAO 2016).
Our research is limited to the possibility of global warming (GWP)
The process involved in the manufacture of three alternative raw materials used in furniture manufacturing.
GWP in LCA involves the effect of gas on equivalent mass C [emissions]O. sub. 2](Penner 1999).
Expressed in C [O. sub. 2]equivalents (C[O. sub. 2]e).
GWP of the process involved in the manufacture of sawwood (
Dry Kiln and Air)
Using the secondary processing data in the Ecoinvent database, the scrap board and steel were calculated.
Ecoinvent is one of the most complete databases used in the LCA.
Generate emission factors using GaBi 6 software and analyze the relative contribution of various material processes to emissions (
PE International 2011.
GWP of material process has utilized CML 2001--Apr.
2013 The methodology is incorporated into GaBi.
The time frame for assessing the effects of global warming, as recommended by PAS 100, is 2050 (BSI 2011).
Most of the emissions include biological C [O. sub. 2]
Produced by biomass combustion (end of life)
Methods for assessing biological emissions are still to be discussed, as they are generally considered equal to carbon isolated in the forest and therefore do not produce net emissions.
According to international standards and guidelines [bio]O. sub. 2]
Not stated in LCA (
Carbon neutral hypothesis)
Or reported separately (
Wolf 2011, EPA 2011, ISO 2006a, Wolf et al. 2012).
The raw materials of sawwood, shavings and steel are compared.
In order to have a unified comparison, the kitchen cabinet designed by IKEA modular kitchen (
METOD/FORVARA base cabinet)
Used as a model of a corpse.
The code shown in Table 2 is selected from the Ecoinvent database using the GaBi 6 software.
The standard unit available in GaBi software for sawwood and scrap boards is 1 [m. sup. 3](in volume)
And steel is 1 [m. sup. 2](in area).
The volume of granular plates and sawwood materials required to produce a kitchen cabinet is estimated to be 0. 0375 [m. sup. 3].
On the other hand, the estimated number of steel plates required to produce a kitchen cabinet is 2. 341 [m. sup. 2].
1 GWP value obtained [m. sup. 3]and 1 [m. sup. 2](
For pellet board and sawmill and steel plate respectively)
Then, in the case of a given value of 0, convert to its equivalent GWP. 0375 [m. sup. 3](
For particle board and sawmill)and 2. 341 [m. sup. 2](
For steel plate).
Kitchen units based on the results of respondents and online data and discussion storage effects approximate an average of 11 cabinets use about 0 cabinets. 7 [m. sup. 3]of wood/panels.
Kitchen units produce about 3 wood consumption per year. 5 million [m. sup. 3](Figure 2).
If imported wood is not included (production * 0. 71 (average fIRW))
From the accounting point of view, the annual domestic wood apparent consumption of the furniture sector is about 2. 5 million [m. sup. 3].
Assuming that the final product pool is in a stable state, the carbon pool of the Western European kitchen furniture unit was estimated to be about 15 million t C in 2013.
Substitution effect of wood/Woodbased panels (
Mainly crushing Board)
Is the most common half
Finished kitchen furniture.
However, technological advances and cheaper alternatives may lead to increased use of other materials.
Table 3 and Figure 3 show the number of substitution ratios and their equivalent C [O. sub. 2]
Emissions of fossil fuels
Reinforced materials (
Metal in this case)
These values are obtained using a 2:1 carbon replacement ratio.
It is important to stress that this is a limit case as it is rare to find cabinets made of 100% steel.
The results show that the emission is about 7 million tons. O. sub. 2]to produce 3. 5 million of [m. sup. 3]
If the kitchen furniture is made of metal rather than wood.
In other words, this is the emission avoided by the use of wood in the production of kitchen furniture.
To support the claim that the use of metal as a replacement in the construction of kitchen equipment will increase carbon emissions in the industry, the GWP value of the replacement raw material (
Wood and steel)are compared.
Like many other furniture, the potential cabinet for global warming uses a series of half
Finished products, such as wooden boards (
The most commonly used material Board), sawnwood (or solid wood)or metal (
Common steel plate)(Gonzalez-Garcia et al.
2011, European Commission 2013).
The following results compare the GWP of the amount of material required to build the model cabinet.
Tables 4 and 5 summarize the emissions of air from the raw materials being compared.
More steel production C [O. sub. 2]
More energy-intensive processes than other materials because of its manufacturing needs.
As shown in figure 4, a 2. 341 [m. sup. 2]
Steel plate production is about 190 kg C 【O. sub. 2]e.
In contrast, participate board (10 kg C[O. sub. 2]e for every 0. 0375 [m. sup. 3])
Higher emissions compared to sawwood (2 kg C[O. sub. 2]e for every 0. 0375 [m. sup. 3])(
Kiln or air drying).
This is because in its manufacturing process, adhesives such as urea formaldehyde adhesives or fire-proof products are used.
In order to prevent water from spilling, paraffin wax was also added to its surface (EWPAA 2008).
However, some panel companies are now pushing for the production of eco-panels made of pure recycled wood with a lower formaldehyde content and therefore a negative carbon footprint.
Even the same material may produce different levels of greenhouse gas emissions under different manufacturing conditions.
In terms of sawwood, kiln-
Dry sawn wood emits more than airdried.
Because more energy consumption is needed for kiln drying (
Power and fuel running kiln dryer)
Compared to airdrying.
This simple GWP analysis not only confirms that steel emits more GHGs than crushed and sawn wood, but also suggests that even the same raw materials may be due to the manufacturing process involved
The wood use of furniture varies depending on the country and product type.
Generally speaking, tropical countries produce more solid wood furniture, while developed countries rely more on wood
Panel and laminate.
Data gaps have been found in the wood furniture industry, especially the number of wood used in the wood furniture industry.
Similarly, the number of wooden furniture manufactured and produced lacks consistency worldwide.
In addition, there are differences in the definition of wooden furniture in different countries, mainly due to the Assembly nature of the department;
Furniture is made of raw materials mixed and classified on the basis of the most prominent raw materials.
Therefore, data on the volume of wooden furniture may not truly represent the volume of wood actually used.
Since the use of timber and informal transactions involved issues, particularly at the level of small and medium-sized producers, it may be difficult to collect such data through general surveys.
In order to conclude at the national level, more data should be collected on the types of furniture used in different countries.
Conclusion The results of this study provide a benchmark analysis of the potential of wood furniture in mitigating climate change.
This study suggests that the kitchen furniture sector in selected countries in Western Europe may store approximately 15 million tons on average, replacing approximately 7 million tons [O. sub. 2]
This part of the furniture mainly uses wood.
Compared with steel, the GWP of basic products is much less.
Putting the use of wood at the top of the most effective alternatives could lead to innovation that could further improve the efficiency of wood substitution and substitution for fossil fuels
There is a data gap, such as the need to report the number of HWP goods to the third level (e. g. furniture)
These pairs quantify this
Total carbon pool.
Further research is needed to fill gaps and further promote the role of HWPs in climate change mitigation.
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